The moon has captivated humanity for centuries, inspiring myths, legends, and scientific exploration. Its serene beauty and enigmatic nature have sparked curiosity and wonder in people of all ages. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating world of “Under Luna,” exploring the mysteries that lie beneath the moon’s surface and shedding light on the latest scientific discoveries.

The Moon’s Formation and Composition

Before we venture into the mysteries of the moon, let’s first understand its formation and composition. The prevailing theory suggests that the moon was formed around 4.5 billion years ago when a Mars-sized object collided with Earth, ejecting debris into space. Over time, this debris coalesced to form the moon.

The moon’s composition is primarily made up of rock and metal. Its surface is covered in a layer of fine dust called regolith, which is composed of small fragments of rock and minerals. Beneath the regolith lies the moon’s crust, mantle, and core.

Exploring the Moon’s Surface

Humanity’s first steps on the moon were taken by the Apollo astronauts in the late 1960s and early 1970s. These missions provided valuable insights into the moon’s surface and its geological history. The astronauts collected samples of moon rocks and conducted experiments to better understand the moon’s composition and formation.

One of the most significant discoveries from the Apollo missions was the presence of water on the moon. Initially, scientists believed that the moon was a dry and desolate place. However, recent studies have revealed the existence of water ice in permanently shadowed craters near the moon’s poles. This discovery has opened up possibilities for future lunar exploration and even the establishment of a lunar base.

The Moon’s Interior: Unraveling the Secrets

While we have gained valuable knowledge about the moon’s surface, its interior remains largely unexplored. Scientists have relied on seismic data collected during the Apollo missions to gain insights into the moon’s internal structure.

The moon’s interior is believed to consist of a solid iron-rich inner core, surrounded by a partially molten outer core. Above the core lies the mantle, which extends to the moon’s surface. However, the exact composition and properties of these layers are still not fully understood.

One of the key questions scientists are trying to answer is whether the moon has a solid or liquid core. By studying the moon’s gravitational field and conducting further seismic experiments, researchers hope to unravel this mystery and gain a deeper understanding of the moon’s formation and evolution.

Unexplained Lunar Phenomena

Throughout history, various unexplained phenomena have been observed on the moon, adding to its mystique. Here are a few intriguing examples:

Lunar Swirls

Lunar swirls are bright, sinuous features found on the moon’s surface. These swirls, also known as “lunar Reiner Gamma,” are characterized by their high albedo, or reflectivity. Scientists believe that these swirls are formed by the interaction of the moon’s magnetic field with solar wind particles. However, the exact mechanism behind their formation is still not fully understood.

TLPs: Transient Lunar Phenomena

Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLPs) are temporary changes observed on the moon’s surface, such as flashes of light or color variations. These phenomena have been reported by both amateur and professional astronomers. While some TLPs can be explained by known processes, others remain mysterious. Possible explanations include outgassing from the moon’s interior or the impact of meteoroids.

Lunar Swarms

Lunar swarms are clusters of small, shallow pits found on the moon’s surface. These pits, also known as “lunar pits,” are thought to be the result of collapsed lava tubes. Lava tubes are underground tunnels formed by flowing lava during volcanic activity. The presence of lunar swarms suggests that the moon was once geologically active, with volcanic eruptions shaping its surface.

Future Lunar Exploration

As our understanding of the moon deepens, so does our desire to explore it further. Several space agencies and private companies have plans for future lunar missions, aiming to uncover more secrets hidden beneath the moon’s surface.

NASA’s Artemis program, named after the Greek goddess of the moon, aims to land astronauts on the lunar surface by 2024. This ambitious mission will not only allow us to study the moon’s geology in greater detail but also serve as a stepping stone for future crewed missions to Mars.

Private companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin are also investing in lunar exploration. SpaceX’s Starship, a fully reusable spacecraft, is envisioned to transport humans and cargo to the moon and beyond. Blue Origin’s Blue Moon lunar lander aims to deliver payloads to the lunar surface, paving the way for future human missions.


1. Can we see the moon’s interior using telescopes?

No, telescopes cannot directly observe the moon’s interior. However, scientists can study the moon’s surface features and analyze seismic data to infer its internal structure.

2. Are there any plans to establish a permanent human presence on the moon?

Yes, several space agencies and private companies have plans to establish a lunar base in the future. This would serve as a research outpost and a stepping stone for further exploration of the solar system.

3. How does the moon’s gravity compare to Earth’s?

The moon’s gravity is about one-sixth of Earth’s gravity. This lower gravity allows astronauts to perform tasks with greater ease and enables the launch of spacecraft with less fuel.

4. Can the moon support life?

As far as we know, the moon does not support life. Its lack of atmosphere, extreme temperatures, and absence of liquid water make it inhospitable for most forms of life as we know it.

5. What are the potential benefits of lunar exploration?

Lunar exploration offers several potential benefits, including:

  • Advancing our understanding of the moon’s formation and evolution
  • Developing technologies for future space exploration
  • Accessing valuable resources, such as water ice
  • Establishing a stepping stone for crewed missions to Mars and beyond


The moon continues to captivate our imagination, offering a glimpse into the mysteries of the universe. Through scientific exploration and technological advancements, we are gradually unraveling the secrets hidden beneath the moon’s surface. As we embark on future lunar missions, we can look forward to uncovering more about the moon’s formation, its interior, and its

Leo Collins
Leo Collins is a crypto journalist and copywriter who has a great passion for blockchain technology. He believes that decentralization empowers people to take charge of their lives, and gives back what we desired for a long time: financial freedom.

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